We take pleasure in answering questions from people all over the world. Below are just a few frequently asked questions and answers. Please contact us if you can't find an answer you're looking for - we're always happy to hear from you.
Which types of plastics are being targeted?
The types of plastics being targeted by Final Cycles include all 6 generally recognized categories plus all other non-categorized plastic waste. These include:
PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate)*
HDPE (High-Density Polyethylene)
PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride)*
LDPE (Low-Density Polyethylene)
What will be done with the carbon black?
Duratherm Building Systems SA de CV (Mexico) purchases our carbon black for resale. All profits from this product are used by Duratherm for our ‘pay-it-forward” program under their direction (ref. Final Cycles core project components - pay it forward). Duratherm evaluates the carbon black quality - unique to each country’s plastic waste stream - to achieve maximum value in the global market.
Will there be a market for the diesel in Mauritius - will the people be ready to use diesel from pyrolysis of plastics?
Final Cycles understands the complexity of selling fuel (and all forms of energy) in regional markets. For this reason it is our preference to form strategic partnerships with entities who can support this effort. Our research has found that users prefer “plastic diesel” fuel, which is lower in sulphur content with a higher cetane level than standard diesel. As such plastic diesel should be well received in all markets (both on-road and off-road). A fluctuation in global energy markets is a financial risk, however, our P&L break even is well below recent record lows in the carbon-based fuel industry. It is recognized that Mauritius depends on importing approximately 83% of its energy needs. Although the amount of diesel produced by Final Cycles is minimal for the size of Mauritius’ population it is a positive energy contribution. Ideally, Final Cycles would offer diesel to municipalities with the intention of helping to reduce their energy costs.
Sounds like Final Cycles is an environmental clean-up company. Why not say so?
This is exactly what we are! The fact that Final Cycles is also financially self-sustainable allows us to move forward without having to rely on the corporate world to clean up the mess they created. If those folks want to get on board, that would be great, but we cannot wait for a boardroom decision that should have been made 20 years ago. Corporations, just like so many government agencies, are too slow to respond to the realities around the plastic waste crisis because it has not risen above their dynamics of power and greed. We just have to march forward with the strength and relentlessness that can only come from a higher state of consciousness.
What is the difference between incineration and pyrolysis?
The key difference between incineration and pyrolysis is that incineration is the thermal decomposition of matter in the presence of oxygen whereas pyrolysis happens in the absence of oxygen. There is a vast body of information on the internet regarding these two approaches to managing municipal solid waste. In summary, there is absolutely no question that pyrolysis is the only process that can responsibly address the plastic waste crisis in total. Let our team know if you want more of the specifics.
You say your factory meets clean air emission standards but what does that really mean? Aren’t you still polluting the air?
This is a very important point. EPA permitting data (USA) indicates that plastic to fuel (PTF) plants create very few HAP (Hazardous Air Pollutant) emissions and are likely to be well below federal permitting requirements. In fact, at some PTF facilities with lower scales of production, very little to no HAP emissions are created. A typical PTF plant does create CAP (Criteria Air Pollutant) emissions comparable to those of numerous specific, well-regulated facilities that are required to report to the EPA under the Clean Air Act.
VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds) and PM (Particulate Matter under 10 microns) emissions from a typical PTF plant are roughly comparable to those from smaller than average food and snack processing plants
SO (Sulfur Dioxide) emissions are roughly comparable to those from smaller than average institutions (hospitals, universities, and prisons)
NO (Nitrogen Dioxide) emissions are roughly comparable to those from average institutions (hospitals, universities, and prisons)
CO (Carbon Monoxide) emissions are comparable to those from average auto manufacturing operations.
Lead emissions are not created from PTF plants.
What is the requirement for plastics being delivered to your facility?
Regarding the subject of “clean” plastic waste, Final Cycles plants could process all forms of MSW (municipal solid waste) however, it is not economically feasible according to our research. Since our focus is entirely on the plastic waste crisis, it is our preference that only plastics be baled for delivery to our facility. The financial self-sustainability of our plants is also dependent on this “plastic only” requirement in order to meet the conversion ratio specified in the project report. So “clean” is not meant to infer free of contaminates but rather free of other waste categories (ex. organic, metal, paper, glass, textile, and others).
Will the project proponent consider only plastics or also used tires?
Final Cycles believes that plastic waste is such a global crisis that it could lead to the end of life as we know in the next 35 years. For this reason we are focusing on the “plastic to fuel” process. The same equipment/technology that we are using for plastic waste can also be used to process discarded tires. However, until such time as the environments we operate in are free of plastic waste, we will not be investing in tire decomposition.
If the solution to the plastic waste crisis has been around for such a long time, why isn’t it being used?
There are well over 100 pyrolysis facilities around the world many using the same equipment supplier as the Final Cycles project. However, most of those plants are processing discarded tires because they are much more easy to handle and the return on investment can be higher. Until recently dealing with tires was considered a more pressing issue in local communities particularly in locations where mosquito abatement is a priority. Nearly all the pyrolysis plants in China are processing tires but that will certainly change since it now has the biggest plastic waste problem in the world. What Final Cycles brings to the table is an aggressively global response, organization and administration skill sets (for plant installations and operations), resources (manpower and money), and intense passion to get the job done on a large scale. And before too long, we will have pyrolysis plants on sea going vessels to address the garbage patches.
Isn’t converting plastic into diesel fuel recycling?
Yes and no. The definition of recycling is the action or process of converting waste into a reusable material. Final Cycles makes plastic disappear entirely so it does not become a reusable material. In the early 1950’s there was basically no plastic waste on the planet. What little plastic there was, was often used over and over again. At that time there was approximately 2.5 billion people on the planet. Today there are over 7.5 billion people that require nearly 400 million metric tons of plastic a year - much of which is used only once before being tossed. In the near future that figure will rise to 1 billion metric tons per year. If this stuff does not disappear for good, it is game over for all living species on the planet. We encourage you to do your own research and share our message with everyone.
Do your pyrolysis plants emit dioxin emissions?
Proper operation of a plastics to fuel facility will not result in the production of dioxins primarily because the material is heated in a closed, oxygen-deprived environment that causes a thermo-chemical reaction that is not combustion. Based on operating and lab data from 6 companies, dioxins are not produced during pyrolysis because:
There is no atmospheric oxygen or halogen in the pyrolysis chamber
The products of pyrolysis spend virtually no time at the dioxin formation temperature
Vapors resulting from pyrolysis combust at temperatures well above the total destruction temperature of dioxins and furans
Will all investment costs be borne by the proponent? What about land the requirement?
Final Cycles should be considered a “contract service provider”. We agree to process plastic waste at no charge to a community provided the community provides a location for our facility (cost free) within a reasonable distance from the primary landfill. With that said, we are approaching this crisis without definitive parameters – the job has to get done no matter what. As such, we are open to all options and considerations, which fit within our business model and provide the best outcomes for the community. Final Cycles is responsible for all financial obligations relative to its facility and operations.
What technology does Final Cycles use?
After several years of research Final Cycles chose the 6th generation pyrolysis and distillation equipment/technology sold by Xinxiang Huayin Renewable Energy Equipment Co. Ltd. located in Henan Province, China. We firmly believe their equipment offers the highest quality, reliability, precision, and processing efficiency in the industry. Huayin now boasts 11 technical patents, international CE, SGS, and ISO certifications. Since 1993 they have sold plants to 46 countries and regions in the world including Finland, which is considered one of the world’s “cleanest and greenest” countries.
Who will operate the plant?
Final Cycles plants are operated by trained local employees. A member of our corporate team provides onsite management of the plant until such time as that responsibility can be handed over to a local employee. Final Cycles also provides remote 24/7 monitoring and security of all of its plants through its affiliate – Ciclo Final AC (a Mexican non-profit entity).
How do you pick your locations for doing business?
Because plastic waste is a crisis everywhere in the world, the decision to locate a Final Cycles plant is primarily based on where we are most welcomed by a community and how quick we can get to work (ex. permitting process, availability of utilities, etc.). Mauritius is an example of a country that has been extremely responsive, efficient, and thorough in their approach with our team. That is what you would expect in a crisis and where we want to put our energy. There is no time to waste and business as usual is unacceptable. For the past 6 years Final Cycles has done its homework, including emission test evaluations, choice of suppliers (taking into consideration the best available technology coupled with quality and pricing), modularization of the plant design (for fast installation and cost savings), detailed operating procedures to ensure optimum results, diesel fuel analysis, attracting financial resources, and the list goes on. We are ready to go to work wherever the door is open. If you are interested in having Final Cycles consider your community for a potential plant site, please click Request a PTF Plant
There is plastic garbage everywhere - do you really think you can make a difference?
Yes, the sad reality is that plastic pollution permeates every part of our beautiful planet. However, there are many things we can and must do to solve this life threatening crisis. Check out our "What I Can Do" page to find out how you can make a difference in your house, community and country, then support Final Cycle's efforts in whatever way you can - advocate, donate or volunteer. Plastic pollution is a major crisis but we can solve it if we work together - the time to act is now.
So what does happen to the different chemicals in the plastic that are vaporized during pyrolysis?
We really appreciate the focus on this subject because it is very important that anyone in the pyrolysis business be subject to this type of inquiry. The vapors referred to are generally known as 'syngas' or 'synthesis gas', which is a combination of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, small quantities of carbon dioxide and other trace gases. Syngas has 50% of the energy density of natural gas so it can be used as a fuel source. Final Cycles uses the syngas, which it produces in the pyrolyisis process, to reduce the operating (energy) cost for the pyrolysis reactor.